Fresh Fruit
List of Contents
1 Product Description
2 Demand and Supply
2.1 Market Size
2.2 Imports
3 Market Information
3.1 Apples and Pears
3.2 Plums, Peaches, Apricots and Cherries
3.3 Berries
3.4 Citrus Fruits and Grapes
3.5 Grapes
3.6 Bananas and Other Fruits
4 Distribution and Trade Channels
4.1 Distribution and Retail Sector
4.2 Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Trade
4.3 Food manufacturers
5 General Information on Imports
5.1 Trade Margins and Pricing Structure
5.2 Customs Tariffs and Import Regulations
6 Market Prospects and Business Opportunities
6.1 Apples, Pears and Plums
6.2 Citrus Fruits
6.3 Bananas
6.4 Other Tropical Fruit
6.5 General Comments
Appendix 1 Imports of Fresh Fruits 2000-2001
Appendix 2 Exchange Rates 1990-2002
Appendix 3 Useful Addresses
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1 Product Description
This market brief focuses on fresh fruit, which falls under the Combined Nomenclature (CN), chapter 8, subheading 01 through 10,30,50,90. The CN is based on the Harmonized System {HS). Below, the statistical numbers for fresh fruit according to the Harmonized System HS are presented.
Fresh Fruit Described in this Survey
Product HS Nos
Plantains 0803.0011
Bananas 0803.0019
Dates 0804.1000
Figs 0804.2010
Pineapples* 0804.3000
Avocados* 0804.4000
Mangoes, Mangosteens, Guavas* 0804.5000
Oranges* 0805.1010; 30; 50;
Mandarins, Satsumas, Clementines
Tangerines and similar Citrus Fruits*
0805.2010; 30; 50; 90;
Lemons and Limes* 0805.3010; 90;
Grapefruit* 0805.4000
Kumquats and Other Citrus Fruits* 0805.9000
Grapes 0806.1010
Melons 0807.1100; 1900;
Papayas (Papaws) 0807.2000
Apples 0808.1010; 20; 50; 90;
Pears and Quinces 0808.2010; 50;
Apricots 0809.1000
Cherries 0809.2005;
Peaches and Nectarines 0809.3010; 90;
Plums and Sloes
0809.4005; 4090;
Strawberries 0810.1000
Raspberries, Blackberries, Mulberries and Loganberries 0810.2010;2090
Black, White or Red Currants and Gosseberries 0810.3010; 90;
Cowberries, Fox berries, Cranberries, and Bilberries (Blueberries) 0810.4010; 30; 50; 90;
Kiwi Fruit 0810.5000
Tamarinds, Cashew Apples, Lychees. Jackfruit and Sapodillo Plums 0810.9030
Passion Fruit, Carambola and Pitahaya 0810.9040
Other Fruits and Berries 0810.9085
 
* including dried fruit

In the survey, all market and import figures are given in the Swedish currency Krona (SEK). In Appendix 2 the exchange rate between the US dollar, the Euro and the Swedish Krona (SEK) for the years 1990-2002 is presented.

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2 Demand and Supply
2.1 Market Size

The per capita consumption of fresh fruit and berries in Sweden is relatively high, in 2001 estimated to 68.1 kg. The three most popular fruits were bananas with 28.1 kg, citrus fruits with 17.6 kg and for apples and pears with 14.4 kg.

The total consumption of fresh fruit in 2001 was estimated at about 606,530 tons, of which bananas accounted for approx. 250,090 tons, citrus fruits about 156,640 tons and apples/pears about 128,160 tons. The consumption of all other fruits and berries accounted for about 61,190 tons.

Domestic production of commercially grown fruit can be estimated to be about 42,000 tons annually. To this figure should be added fruit and berries grown by farmers and households for there own consumption and wild berries picked for the consumption and wild berries picked for the commercial market or home consumption. The figures for these crops are very uncertain but quantities can be assumed to be quite considerable in the summer and early autumn.

Private Consumption of Fresh Fruit 1999-2001

Market Value in SEK million
Quantity in tons
Per capita in kilograms

Product 1999 2000 2001 +00-01 +99-01
Total Consumption
Market Value 8 809 8 675 9 153 +478 +344
Quantity 578 570 600 820 606 530 +5 710 +27 960
Per capita 65.0 67.5 68.1 +0.6 +3.1
 
Market Value
Citrus Fruits and Grapes 1781 1619 1540 -79 -241
Almonds 504 489 480 -9 -24
Apples and Pears 1 636 1 719 1 973 +254 +337
Cherries, Peeches, Plums and other Stonefruits 738 723 765 +42 +27
Bananas and Other Fruits 3 390 3 389 3 655 +266 +265
Berries 760 736 740 +4 -188
.Total 8809 8675 9153 +478 +344
 
Quantity
Citrus Fruits and Grapes 137950 151 300 156640 +5340 +18690
Almonds 13 350 10 680 10 450 -230 -2900
Apples and Pears 125 490 125 490 128 160 +2670 +2670
Cherries, Peaches, Plums and other Stonefruits 24 100 24 100 24 700 +600 +600
Bananas and Other Fruits 230510 250090 245640 +4 450 +19580
Berries 47170 43610 36490 -7 120 -10680
.Total 578 570 600 820 606 530 +6 890 +29 140
 
Per Capita
Citrus Fruits and Grapes 15.5 17.0 17.6 +0.6 +2.1
Almonds 1.5 1.2 1.0 -0.2 -0.5
Apples and Pears 14.1 14.1 14.4 +0.3 +0.3
Cherries, Peaches, Plums and other Stonefruits 2.7 2.7 2.9 +0.2 +0.2
Bananas and Other Fruits 25.9 27.6 28.1 +0.5 +2.2
Berries 5.3 4.9 4.1 -1.2 -1.2
.Total 65.0 67.5 68.1 +0.6 +3.1
 
Source: Statistics Sweden, National Food Administration, Food Consumption 1999-2001
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2.2 Imports

Sweden has a cold temperate climate, which makes it impossible to cultivate many species of fruit. Sweden can only cultivate deciduous fruit, such as apples, pears and plums as well as strawberries, blueberries and certain other berries. This makes it necessary to rely on imports of most kinds of fresh fruit and also of deciduous fruits and berries in the off-season period.

The imports of fresh fruit have expanded for many years, both in volume and diversity. The biggest increase has been recorded for bananas, mandarins, melons, peaches, plums and grapes. Also some exotic fruits such as avocado and papaya fruit should be mentioned. Regarding imports of bananas -Sweden's most popular fruit -have since 1990 increased well over 30%, while imports of citrus fruits have only increased 4%.

In terms of volume, imports of fresh fruit have increased about 13% since 1990, from 470,000 tons to approx. 525,000 tons in 200 I. In value, imports amounted to SEK 3,913 million in 200 1 compared to SEK 3,513 million the year before, a increase of 11.4%.

The Swedish fruit market is with some exceptions mainly supplied by other EU- countries, with the Netherlands, France, Germany and Spain as the most important suppliers. Direct imports from non-EU countries mainly include bananas (Costa Rica and Panama), citrus fruits (Israel, Brazil and Morocco,), grapes (Chile USA and Cyprus), apples and pears (Chile, Argentina, Uruguay and USA), cherries (USA and Turkey), and berries (Russia, Estonia).

Detailed import statistics for 2000-2001 with country of origin are also presented in Appendix I.

Imports 1990-2001
Quantity in tons
Import value in SEK million
Product
Quantity
Value
1990
2000
2001
+90-01
2001
Apples, Pears
121 300
115 040
107 565
-13 735
672.30
Plums, Peaches, Cherries, Apricots
17700
23134
23123
+5423
200.71
Berries*
3800
8383
8347
+4547
155.15
Citrus Fruits
129800
131 566
135430
+5630
829.62
Grapes
21 700
21 933
18 511
-3 189
230.20
Bananas
142 800
190 417
184 860
+42 060
1419.47
Pineapples, Avocados, Mangoes, Melons, Papayas, Kiwi Fruit, Passion Fruit & Other Fruits
32200
54 463
46631
+14431
405.87
.Total
469300
544936
524467
+55167
3913.32
 
* HS 0810.1000- 08109085
Source: Statistics Sweden 1990-2001
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3 Market Information
3.1 Apples and Pears

The private consumption of apples and pears amounts to about 128,000 tons annually, which equals 14.4 kg per capita In 2001, the market value was estimated to SEK 1,973 million, a increase of approx 14.8% compared to 2000 and 20.6% to 1999.

With a share of about 75% of the apple market and 90% of the pear market, imports playa dominating role on the Swedish market, with the exception of a short period in the autumn.

Imports of apples and pears reached SEK 672 million in 2001, a decrease of 9.4% compared to the year before. Since 1990, imported quantities have been around 121,000 tons. In 2001 imports amounted to 107,565 tons, compared to 115,040 tons the year before.

Private Consumption of Apples and Pears 1999-2001
Market Value in SEK million
Quantity in tons/Per capita in kilograms
Product
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
%99-01
Market Value
1 636
1 719
1 973
+337
+20.60
Quantity
125 490
125 490
128 160
+2670
+2.12
Per capita
14.1
14.1
14.4
+0.3
+2.13
Source: Swedish Board of Agriculture, Food Consumption 1999-2001

Apples account for some 74% and pears 26% of the total imports.

The major suppliers of apples to the Swedish market are France and other EU- countries (about 60%). Other major suppliers include Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, and USA. During the last two years there have also been minor imports from ther countries, for example Brazil and China.

Pears is mainly imported through the Netherlands and other EU-countries (60-65%) and USA, Argentina and Chile. Other suppliers include China and South Africa.

Imports 1999-2001
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million
HS
Quantity
Value
Product
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
2001
0808.1010
Apples
86 935
87 161
79349
-7586
482.3
0808.1020
0808.1050
0808.1090
0808.2010
Pears
31 805
27879
28216
-3589
190.0
0808.2050
.Total
118740
115040
107565
-11175
672.3
Source: Statistics Sweden 1999-2001
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3.2 Plums, Peaches, Apricots and Cherries

The private consumption of fresh plums, peaches (including nectarines), cherries and apricots amounts to about 25,000 tons annually. The main part consists of peaches, while plums, cherries and apricots have a relatively small -but growing market share.

Private consumption of these fruits was estimated SEK 765 million in 2001, a increase of 3.7% compared to 1999.

Private Consumption of Stonefruits 1999-2001
Market Value in SEK million
Quantity in tons
Per capita in kilograms
Product
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
%99-01
Market Value
738
723
765
+27
+3.6
Quantity
24 100
24 100
24 700
+600
+2.5
Per capita
2.7
2.7
2.9
+0.2
+7.4
Source: Swedish Board of Agriculture. Food Consumption 1999-2001

As can be seen in the table above, the private consumption has been unchanged during the last three years unchanged. Since plums, peaches, apricots and cherries are not really commercially cultivated in Sweden the market is mainly supplied by imports.

In 2001, imports amounted to SEK 200 million, compared to SEK 210 milion the year before, a decrease of 5%. In terms of quantity, imports of plums, peaches, apricots and cherries have decreased about 0.1 %, from 23, 134 tons in 2000 to 23, 123 tons in 2001.

Peaches are mainly imported from Italy and EU-countries like the Netherlands, Spain, Denmark, and Greece. Non-EU suppliers include Turkey, Chile and USA. During the last years, the main suppliers of plums have been the EU (mainly Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Germany) and Chile, USA, Hungary, Turkey and Israel.

Cherries are mainly imported from three sources, the EU (primarily Netherlands, Italy, Germany), USA and the Turkey. In recent years some small volumes have also been imported from other countries such as Syria and Iran.

Apricots are almost entirely imported through other EU-countries (chiefly the Netherlands and the Italy). Smaller volumes have also been imported from Turkey, the Middle East and Central Europe.

Imports 1999-2001
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million
HS Quantity
Value
Product
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
2001
0809.1000
Apricots
763
535
373
-390
5.0
0809.2005 Cherries
1 200
1 127
1 00
-200
26.8
0809.2095  
0809.3010 Peaches
20344
18121
18868
-1476
140.2
0809.3090  
0809.4005 Plum
1 400
3 351
2 882
+1 482
28.6
.Total  
23707
23134
23123
-584
200.6
Source: Statistics SWeden 1999-2001
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3.3 Berries

Consumption of fresh berries has decreased for the first time during the last ten years. In 2001, sales of fresh berries reached SEK 740 million, a decrease of 2.6% compared to 1999. In quantity, the decrease is more considerable around 23%.

Strawberries are by far the most important type of berries on the Swedish market. Other important types are cowberries, bilberries (blueberries), raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, black and red currants and gooseberries.

The domestic growers of strawberries have a market share of over 75% of the market. Other berries are of very small importance for the domestic growers, with the exception of black-currants which are mainly grown for the juice and preserves industry.

Private Consumption of Berries 1999-2001
Market Value in SEK million;
Quantity in Mkg
Per capita in kilograms

Product

1999
2000
2001
+99-01
%99-01
Value
760
736
740
-20
-2.6
Quantity
47 170
43610
36490
-10680
-22.6
Per capita
5.3
4.9
4.1
-1.2
-22.6
Source: Swedish Board of Agriculture, Food Consumption 1999-2001

Imports of fresh berries (under HS 0810.1000-3090) amounted to approx. SEK 155 million in 2001, a increase of 7.1 % compared to 2000. Between 1999 and 2001 imported quantities have increased from around 8,200 tons to 8,400 tons, about 2.4%.

Strawberries are chiefly imported from other EU-countries (Belgium, Italy, and Netherlands). During the last two years Poland has also supplied some volumes.

The EU is the main source also for other type of berries. Non-EU suppliers include Poland (raspberries, bilberries), Guatemala (blackberries), as well as Russia, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (cowberries, fox berries and bilberries).

Imported Volumes 1999-2001
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million
HS Product Quantity Value
1999 2000 2001 +99-01 2001
0810.1000
Strawberries 5580 4486 4914 -666 118.8
0810.2010 Raspberries 189 169 95 -94 5.6
0810.2090 Blackberries, Mulberries, Loganberries 12 23 13 +1 1.1
0810.3010 Black/White/Red Currants, Gooseberries
0810.3090 Others 28 3 2 -26 0.1
 
0810.4010 Cowberries,
0810.4030 Fox berries,
0810.4050 Cranberries,
0810.4090 Bilberries 2444 3702 3323 +879 29.4
  .Total 8253 8383 8347 +94 155.0
Source: Statistics Sweden 1999, 2000, 2001
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3.4 Citrus Fruits and Grapes

The Swedish consumption of fresh citrus fruits amounted to SEK 1,540 million in 2001, compared to SEK 1,619 million in 2000 and SEK 1,781 million in 1999. In quantity, the market amounted to about 156,640 tons in 2001, compared to 137,950 tons in 1999, an increase of 13.5%.

A Swedish characteristic is that consumers prefer oranges, which they can peel and chew by segment, over oranges mainly suitable for pressing juice. Small citrus fruits such as mandarins, satsumas, clementines have become popular. Lemons have a quite stable market share while the market for lime is negligible. Grapefruits have a small market in Sweden.

Of the total citrus market, oranges account for approx. 50% and small citrus fruits for 35%. The remainder consists of lemons (10%) and grapefruit (5%).

Private Consumption of Citrus Fruit 1999-2001
Market Value in SEK million
Quantity in tons
Per capita in kilograms
Product
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
%99-01
Market Value
1781
1619
1540
-241
-13.5
Qauantity
137950
151300
156640
+18690
+13.5
Per capita
15.5
17.0
17.6
+2.1
+13.5
Source: Swedish Board of Agriculture, Food Consumption 1999-2001

Almost all of Sweden's imports of oranges come from other EU countries (chiefly Spain and Italy) or from Israel and Morocco. During the last two years there has also been some small imports from Turkey and Egypt and countries in the Southern Hemisphere.

Small citrus fruits are mainly imported from Spain and Morocco or through fruit traders in the Netherlands and Germany. Other sources are Israel and Cyprus and to some extent Turkey, Argentine and Uruguay.

Most lemons are imported from other EU-countries (Spain, the Netherlands, and Germany). The largest non-EU suppliers are normally Cyprus, Turkey, Mexico and Argentina. There are also numerous other suppliers including South Mrica, Jordan and Iran.

Imports 1999-2001

Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million

HS Product
Quantity
Value
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
2001
0805.1010 Oranges
61 214
67629
74893
+13679
375.8
0805.1030  
0805.1050  
0805.2010 Clementines
0805.2030 Satsumas
0805.2050 Mandarins, etc
41 898
46029
43590
+1 692
339.7
0805.3000 Lemons
0805.3090
Limes
10 962
11 809
11 444
+482
73.4
0805.4000 Grapefruit
6416
5985
5340
-1076
37.3
0805.9000 Other Fruit
196
114
163
-33
3.3
.Total 120686
131 566
135430
+14744
829.5
Source: Statistics Sweden 1999-2001
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3.5 Grapes

The market is fully covered by imports. Imports of fresh grapes equalled SEK 230 million in 2001, a unchanged to the previous year. Since the early 1990's imported quantities have on average been around 21,000-24,000 tons per year.

With an average share of 90%, other EU-countries are the dominant suppliers to the Swedish market, with Italy as the most important country of origin. Small quantities have also been imported from the USA, Chile, Brazil, Argentina, Cyprus, Turkey and Macedonia.

Imports 1999-2001
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million
HS Product Quantity Value
1999 2000 2001 +99-01 2001
0806.1010 Grapes 24308 21 933 18511 -5797 230.2
Source: Statistics Sweden 1999-2001
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3.6 Bananas and Other Fruits
Consumption of other fresh fruits amounted to SEK 3 655 million in 2001, of which bananas accounted for well over 85% of the total while other fruits, consisting mainly of melons, kiwi fruit, avocados, mangoes and pineapples, for the remaining 15%.
Private Consumption of Bananas and Other Fruits 1999-2001
Market Value in SEK million
Quantity in Mkg
Per capita in kilograms
Product
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
%99-01
Market Value
3 390
3 389
3 655
+265
+ 7.8
Quantity
230 510
245 640
250 090
+19 580
+8.5
Per capita
25.9
27.6
28.1
+2.2
+8.5
Source: Swedish Board of Agriculture, Food Consumption 1999-2001
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3.6.1 Bananas

Bananas are Sweden's most popular fruit and Swedes on the average eat about 28.1 kg bananas per capita last year, a very high figure for a European country.

Imports of fresh bananas amounted to SEK 1,419 million in 2001, compared to SEK 1,235 million the previous year. In quantity, imports decreased 0.6% from 185,906 tons in 1999 to 184,860 tons in 2001. Since 1990, imported volumes have increased approx. 30%.

Approx. 90% of imports originate from Central America (Costa Rica and Panama) and South America (Colombia, Ecuador and Nicaragua). Small volumes have during the last years also been imported from the Ghana and Uganda.

Imports 1999-2001
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million
HS
Product
Quantity
Value
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
2001
0803.0011
plantains
150
104
81
-69
0.9
0803.0019
Bananas
185756
190313
184779
-977
1418.0
.Total
185906
190417
184860
-1 046
1419.0
Source: Statistics Sweden 1999-2001

Fresh plantains are relatively rare in Sweden. In 2001, imports amounted to just 81 tons, equalling SEK 0.9 million. Main suppliers are fruit companies in the Netherlands and Germany, but some imports are also done directly from Uganda, Ghana and Kenya.

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3.6.2 Other Fruits

In 2001, imports of other fruits amounted to approx. SEK 406 million, of which the share for the five most important fruits -melons, kiwi fruit, avocados, mangoes and pineapples -was approx. 85%. Between 1990 and 1999 imported quantities have increased about 45%, from 32,000 tons to 47,000 tons.

The major suppliers of these fruits are other EU-countries -mainly Spain, the Netherlands, Belgium Greece and Germany. Direct shipments from non-EU suppliers include

-Turkey (melons, other fruits),
-Iran (melons, other fruits),
-Pakistan (mangoes),
-Thailand (pineapples, papayas, other fruits),
-Zimbabwe (passion fruit, etc),
-Kenya (mangoes, passion fruit, etc),
-Ghana (papayas),
-Mexico (avocados, mangoes),
-Chile (kiwi fruit), and
-Hungary (melons).

Imports 1999-2001
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK million
HS Product
Quantity
Value
1999
2000
2001
+99-01
2001
0804.1000 Dates
-
806
842
-
14.4
0804.2010 Figs
-
182
137
-
2.9
0804.3000 Pineapples
1729
1553
1755
+26
17.5
0804.4000 Avocados
5412
6207
4531
-881
67.7
0804.5000 Mangoes, Mangosteens, Guavas
1 196
1831
1447
+251
18.4
0807.1100 Melons
26269
32171
26479
+210
140.9
0807.1900
0807.2000 Papayas
374
283
213
-377
5.8
0810.5000 Kiwi Fruit
6658
8807
8624
+1966
87.1
0810.9030 Tamarinds, Cashew Apples, Lychees, Jackfruit, Sapodillos
28
28
72
+33
2.2
0810.9040 Passion Fruit, Carambola, Pitahaya
429
276
447
+18
12.3
0810.9085 Other Fruit
2065
2319
2084
+19
36.6
.Total  
44171
54463
46631
+2460
405.8
Source: Statistics Sweden 1999-2001
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4 Distribution and Trade Channels
4.1 Distribution and Retail Sector

The Swedish distribution of food to the retail sector is dominated by four integrated trade groups, with both retail and wholesales activities. All four groups have built up their own buying and import departments.

This trade groups import some of their general food supplies by themselves, especially items bought in high volumes, and some through independent wholesalers acting as importers or agents.

The convenience store and kiosk segment of the market is supplied by specialized wholesalers, of which the two largest belong to one of the four integrated trade groups.

As mentioned above, the Swedish food-retailing sector is highly concentrated. Four trade groups with integrated retail and wholesale activities -ICA, Coop Sweden, Axfood and Bergendahls -account for about 75% of the total market:

  • ICA Ahold is by far Sweden's largest food retailer with 1,900 stores and a market share of about 36%.
  • Axfood has 900 stores and 19% of the market.
  • Coop Sweden has 950 stores and approx. 18% of the market.
  • Bergendahls, a regional group with a strong base in the southern part of the country, has 100 stores and a market share of 2% (of which 20% in the southern region).

All these groups are also cooperating with retailing groups in other Scandinavian or EU countries, especially regarding imports.

Other retail groups, including convenience and traffic store chains, as well as smaller independent stores such as specialized food stores and kiosks, are supplied either by the wholesale arm of one the four large retail groups, or through one or several of the specialized wholesalers.

In Sweden, most retail sales of food pass through supermarkets or other general grocery stores with a wide assortment of foodstuffs and household items such as paper products, chemical products, toiletries, flowers, newspapers and tobacco.

There are approx. 6,100 grocery stores with a full line of food and other household items, of which 2,000 are larger stores, such as supermarkets and hypermarkets. Discount stores with a limited assortment have in recent years obtained a relatively large market share, approx. 12%.

There are also a large amount of bakeries, fruit stores, deli stores and other single line stores as well as kiosks and street markets. In addition, there are state-run liquor stores, which are the only retailers that have the right to sell alcoholic beverages such as wine, spirits and strong alcoholic beer.

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4.2 Fresh Fruit and Vegetables Trade

Two fruit and vegetables groups -Saba Trading and ICA Frukt & GrÖnt –account for approx. 85% of the total imports of fresh fruit and vegetables into Sweden.

Saba Trading, co-owned by the Axfood and Coop Sweden, is Sweden's and Scandinavia's largest importer and distributor of fresh fruit and vegetables and including its subsidiary FTK, based in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, it also ranks as Europes fourth largest company in its field.

Saba Trading imports about 50% of all fresh fruit and vegetables into Sweden. Subsidiaries also include four banana importing companies: Especially Organic

Bananas (Biodynamiska Produkter), ICA Banan AB, Banan-Kompaniet AB and Skandinaviska Bananimporten, as well as a flower importer and several distributing companies.

ICA Frukt & GrÖnt, a subsidiary within the ICA Group, account for about 30% of the Swedish fresh fruit and vegetables distribution. There are also two specialized companies, ICA Banan (bananas) and Viking Fruit (overseas imports).

Besides these two large groups there are also numerous small and medium sized importers. However, most of these importers are focused on imports from Europe or the Mediterranean area. There are also specialized importers of organic (ecologic) food products, buying from around the world.

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4.3 Food Manufacturers

Large food manufacturers using fresh fruits and vegetables as raw materials either buy everything directly themselves or some products themselves and others with the help of agents/importers. Among the largest Swedish manufacturers of canned, dried or deep frozen fruit and vegetable products are Procordia Food, Nestle, Topp, Bjomekulla and Scanfood.

As has been mentioned before, for logistic and other practical reasons, Swedish manufacturers prefer to buy their raw materials from domestic growers or suppliers in other nearby countries.

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5 General Information on Imports
5.1 Trade Margins and Pricing Structure

The value of imports is calculated as the price paid by the importer including expenses for insurance and transport to the Swedish border. The trade margins for fresh fruit and vegetables vary greatly depending on type of product and distribution channels. If an agent is involved, he generally wants 5%. Importers apply a mark-up varying between 10 and 30% on landed cost. Wholesalers usually add another 15% but their mark-up may be higher if they offer a very specialized service. At the retail level, mark-ups in the food stores vary from 50-60% up to 100% or higher, including VAT (which is 12%).

As a rule of thumb, a good idea of the consumer price can be calculated by multiplying landed cost by 2.5 or 3.

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5.1.1 Price Strategy –Sweden

Price is one of the single most important factors when it comes to exports. The price level often determines whether or not the export comes off. Studying the prices of rival products makes export calculations much easier.

There is big difference in the price level of individual products, and the factors that directly affect pricing are:

Competition

In Sweden we have an oligopoly, which means that 2-5 companies more or less dominate 80-95% of a product group. This means that in certain cases the price

level can be relatively stable and even between the players. When the dominance of a few players is too great and the price level is relatively even high, the conditions are excellent for breaking in.

Geographical position
There are big differences in pricing depending on where in Sweden the product is sold. The south and west of Sweden generally have a lower price level than the central regions.
The profile -or role -of the supermarket
Prices on the Swedish convenience goods market are largely influenced by what profile or role the supermarket has. There are considerable differences in an individual product since cost levels and margins vary according to the different roles. The most important question is what role the supermarket plays on the market -what different needs the consumers have with regard to availability, level of service, product range and pricing.
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5.2 Customs Tariffs and Import Regulations

As a full member of the European Union (EU), Sweden is apart of the EU customs union. This means that there are no customs duties or other trade barriers between the other EU-countries and Sweden.

Consequently, for imports of products from non-EU countries, EU customs tariffs apply. Furthermore, some of these imports have to be delivered to the EU on a quota basis. However, products from ACP-countries and LOMB-countries are exempted from duty. For other developing countries GSP agreements may lower the applicable customs tariffs.

The EU customs tariff system is under constant revision, which is the result of several processes. The GATT Uruguay round talks resulted in agreements on lowered tariffs also on food and agricultural products. These agreements must be implemented over a period of several years and will lead to yearly adjustments of tariffs. This process has already started.

Bilateral preferential agreements, quotas and licensing requirements are also being renegotiated and changed as political and market trends make it necessary and crops fail or bumper create overproduction.

Finally, the former Reference Price System has recently been replaced by an Entry Price System, which is regarded to be more open and predictable for importers, but hardly better for exporters in non EU-countries.

With the whole structure and many tariffs being changed, not only once a year, but continously over the year, the only way to find out what exactly applies to a specific product from a specific country at a specific point of time, is to contact the EU Customs Authority, Eurostat, Swedish Customs or organisations representing importers and distributors (see addresses in Appendix 3).

EU regulations regarding food labeling, nutritional information, additives and food control are now also in effect in Sweden. However, under a transitional period, some Swedish regulations will still be applicable.

The Swedish Board of Agriculture is responsible for plant protection. Certain plants and plant products may be imported only on condition that a phytosanitary certificate, issued by the Plant Protection Authority of the country of cultivation, is presented upon importation at the point of entry .The inspection is covered by a special "plant protection fee". Exporters are recommended to check this in each individual case.

Shipments are subject to testing by the authorities according to general EU requirements. Shipments are seldom stopped, provided exporters observe normal care in growing and handling.

When it comes to packing and transport, there are no official regulations. The importer will see to that the products are transported in such a way that they arrive to Sweden without damages.

As with all food imports to Sweden, the goods imported in consumer packages have to be marked with content, weight, country of origin, whether they contain any additives, colorants, or other foreign substances.

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6 Market Prospects and Business Opportunities
In general, it must be said that it is very difficult for new suppliers of citrus fruits and bananas to enter the Swedish market, which is very well established since many years. There are better prospects for exporters of other types of tropical fruit. Of course, exporters must prove that they can deliver the product according to international standards regarding quality, grading and packing. Furthermore, they have to guarantee quick and reliable deliveries straight from plantations to buyer. They should also try to launch an entire marketing concept, aimed at introducing their products to new consumers.
6.1 Apples, Pears and Plums

Several developing countries have the right climatic conditions for growing these types of fruit. There is an established import from some countries in South America. Other potential exporting countries in the Third World have been tested, but cold storage transport problems occured.

For new exporters outside the EU, the Swedish market is difficult to enter, despite tariff preferences for import from some countries and zero tariff from LOMB countries (overseas countries and territories).

6.2 Citrus Fruits

There has been a well-established supply of citrus fruits to the Swedish market for many years, mainly from Spain, Morocco and Israel. It is very difficult and costly for new suppliers to enter the market for these types of fruit.

The sales of oranges have decreased during the last few years. One of the main reasons may be that consumption of orange juice has been growing steadily. The Swedish per capita consumption of juice is one of the highest in the world.

Due to long transport distances, Swedish importer usually cooperates when importing from far-away countries. During the last few years there has been a certain interest in alternative sources of supply for importation during the summer season. However, it is very difficult for new suppliers to compete with countries, which already have an established export to Sweden, with well-organised systems.

The market for satsumas, clementines and similar citrus fruits has developed positively. Main suppliers are Morocco and Spain. Morocco is since many years well established and has invested large amounts in the promotion of small citrus fruits and has gradually improved its market share which is now around 50%.

Other citrus fruits have a comparatively small share of the Swedish market. The lime fruit, which is very popular in most other countries, is not often seen in Sweden.

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6.3 Bananas

Bananas are the fruit that have been most affected by the new rules and regulations, which came into effect after Sweden joined the EU. Bananas can be grouped into three main categories:

  • Community bananas, which are grown in the EU, chiefly in the Canary Islands, Madeira, French departments in the Carribean and in Crete.
  • Traditional ACP bananas, which have been traditionally imported from ACP- countries up to a tariff quota. These bananas come mainly from Cameroun, Cote d'Ivoire (the Ivory Coast), Jamaica and the Windward Islands.
  • Third country and non-traditional bananas. These bananas can be imported up to a quota duty-free from ACP-countries and with a duty for third country bananas.

When importing bananas in excess of the tariff quotas, a higher duty applies. The quotas are divided among importers in away that favours old established importers and discriminate against new ones.Importers must apply for licences, and in the case of Central and South America, an export licence must accompany the application from the exporting couhtry.

The Swedish consumer buys almost exclusively varities of the Cavendish banana, big yellow bananas, often under brand names like Dole, Fyffes or Oncel Tuca.Exporters in ACP-countries who grow this type of banana and can match the price and transport reliability of other third country exporters, may in time find it interesting to look at the Swedish market, but for the time being their capacity is probably taken by exports to other EU countries.

It will not be easy for new banana exporters to enter the Swedish market. Both export countries and importers are under quota, and the logistics of transport, packaging and marketing make it virtually impossible for a new exporter to do it on its own.

The international trade in bananas is dominated by a small group of companies. Even if importers welcome alternative sources of supply, it is in practice extremely difficult for newcomers to compete on this market if they lack full access to cold- storage ships and other facilities, which are essential in the distribution of this perishable fruit.

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6.4 Other Tropical Fruit

Generally speaking, there is an interest in tropical fruit in Sweden. The fruit trade is positive to cooperation in activities, which can increase the turnover of the fresh fruit department in food stores, which usually result in good sales developments. Consumers are quite curious about new and exotic products, especially if they are sold at low prices to that they can be sampled without spending too much money.

At the same time it must be said that consumers' acceptance of new tropical fruits is generally quite slow, although some types which have been introduced via heavy marketing activities have won consumer approval. The trade is therefore very positive to most campaigns aimed at widening the tropical assortment.

The first tropical fruit that was accepted in Sweden was the pineapple, which was introduced many years ago and is now familiar to most consumers. Still, sales volumes are small and there are no signs of improvement. One major reason for the lack of real success is the fact that the fruit is transported by boat to Sweden, which means it has to be picked in an unripe state, which influences taste and general appearance very negatively.

The introduction of avocado about 25 years ago was a success. Through strong sales campaigns consumers very soon learned how to use and serve it. The kiwi fruit is another fruit, which has become generally accepted in quite a short time. Both avocados and kiwis are comparatively easy to transport and handle, since they have a long shelf life.

Mango was introduced trough a marketing campaign in 1992. Sales up to then had been very low and few Swedes knew anything about the product. Swedish importers have been actively looking for new suppliers of e.g. avocadoes and mangoes for certain periods of the year, especially the period June and September.

There are other products, which could be the subject of similar campaigns, for example papaya, passion fruit and lime. However, it is very important that potential suppliers are prepared to cooperate with importers in suitable activities. Suppliers cannot expect a quick return on either the money or effort, which must be put into the Swedish market. It is also essential that exporters can prove their general ability to handle the packing and transport of the products in question.

The market for this group of fruits is not likely to change much. Most imports come from countries which have zero duty, with a few exceptions (mostly affecting kiwi fruit and pineapples).

For natural reasons, this product group offers the best prospects for new increased exports from developing countries. The problem is to make Swedes eat more of these fruits, and that is a slow process. Consumption of fresh tropical fruit has increased over the past several years, with the exception of fresh pineapples. But the increase is slow and has started from a very low level.

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6.5 General Comments

The EU customs tariffs present an obstacle for suppliers in non-EU, LOMB- or ACP-countries. However, the market situation, supply and demand, is much more important for the price of fresh fruits than customs duties up to 10-15%. When tariffs reach and pass 20% the trade feels that they begin to have a real impact on the choice of supplying countries.

The new Entry Price System, with published rates of duty per 100 kg for imports priced at different levels below the minimum entry price, will effect the trade. Virtually all imports will enter Sweden at the minimum price, as there will be no reason to press import prices below that level. Quality on the other hand may improve as negotiations will probably concentrate on quality more than on price.

For new exporters from non-EU countries, the opportunities to compete with products which can be grown in the EU, LOMB- and ACP- countries or countries with preferential agreements, are very limited. There are of course possibilities to export more tropical fruits to Sweden, but in this case it will be a matter of price, transport logistics and marketing insights. Few developing countries are likely to be able to improve on these matters quickly.

Also, the situation has not become easier after Sweden joined the European Union (EU). When countries in Central and Eastern Europe, which not yet are members of the EU, have satisfied their own and neighbouring market demand for fresh fruit, they may be able to be strong competitors on the European market as well. Consequently, as it is today, the market situation does not offer many opportunities.

Exporters in developing non-EU countries who decide to attempt to penetrate the Swedish market are recommended to make sure that they can deliver the product according to international standards regarding quality and packing, and that they can guarantee quick and reliable deliveries straight from the growing place to the buyer. Plans should also be discussed with regular consignors in other EU-countries to find out whether cooperation might be advantageous.

An important condition for a successful marketing operation is that growers, packers and cooperatives are linked together into an export organization, which could possibly include other agricultural products.

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Appendix 1
Imports of Fresh Fruits 2000-2001
  • Imports to Sweden in 2000 and 2001.
  • Trade statistics are presented according to the Harmonized System (HS).
  • For each product, the main exporting countries are listed, as well as all recorded non-EU exporters.
HS No.
Product/Country 
Quantity in tons
Value in SEK 1000
2000
2001
2000
2001
08030011       
Plantains, fresh
104
81
899
876
Netherlands
88
62
683
591
Uganda
6
7
118
156
Germany
9
10
78
90
Ghana
0
1
1
21
Denmark
1
0
10
14
Kenya
0
0
4
0
USA
0
0
4
0
  
08030019                  
Bananas, fresh
190313
184779
1234153
1418598
Costa Rica
64490
44954
399112
370930
Germany
24859
46723
149678
307475
Panama
51111
34367
395796
281588
Netherlands
8752
22429
50675
162301
Finland
2
11101
14
98427
Belgium
13399
11528
73500
86965
Honduras
1253
9293
7944
83100
Denmark
148
1498
892
9424
Colombia
17132
1335
92347
8480
Nicaragua
5996
717
50419
5910
Ecuador
2890
833
12400
3991
Thailand
0
0
5
8
France
0
0
0
1
Ivory Coast
21
0
91
0
Guatemala
145
0
580
0
Cameroon
57
0
345
0
Norway
16
0
85
0
Great Britain and North Ireland
42
0
269
0
 
08041000                  
Dates, fresh and dried
806
842
14533
14371
France
162
149
3724
4476
USA
86
49
5652
3671
Iran
303
327
2193
2701
Israel
0
14
0
1021
Netherlands
35
29
1686
679
Saudi Arabia
147
90
586
425
Tunisia
0
24
1
290
Greece
0
48
0
239
Germany
2
5
83
152
United Arab Emirates
0
24
0
131
Great Britain and North Ireland
18
18
106
131
Denmark
0
14
6
124
Syria
0
26
0
85
Belgium
0
1
0
64
Jordan
2
7
13
55
Turkey
4
7
41
46
Egypt
6
6
30
38
Hongkong
2
1
33
26
Lebanon
1
3
7
18
Japan
0
0
0
2
Algeria
15
0
191
0
Canada
0
0
1
0
Poland
23
0
180
0
 
08042010        
Figs
182
137
3407
2904
Netherland
147
111
2908
2553
Germany
12
13
265
212
Turkey
16
7
95
59
Belgium
0
1
0
32
Italy
4
2
33
28
Iran
0
3
0
20
Denmark
2
0
91
0
Egypt
0
0
1
0
Great Britain and North Ireland
0
0
10
0
 
08043000
Pineapples, fresh and dried
1553
1755
15152
17473
France
295
721
2522
6081
Netherlands
738
570
6058
5203
Germany
418
265
4887
3354
Belgium
44
92
460
1421
Thailand
41
47
799
887
Spain
2
26
99
230
Demark
10
13
114
118
Turkey
0
8
0
114
Great Britain and North Ireland
0
13
0
60
Ghana
3
0
177
6
Sri Lanka
1
0
35
0
08044000
Avocados, fresh and dried
6207
4531
71866
67745
Netherlands
3524
2277
40680
32620
Spain
1521
1084
17423
16438
France
277
397
3437
7231
Mexico
108
379
1486
5521
Belgium
206
243
1964
3635
Israel
420
101
4785
1364
Germany
30
27
418
521
Denmark
94
22
1361
409
Gambia
0
0
0
4
Great Britain and North Ireland
26
0
303
3
 
08045000
Mango, Mangosteens, Guavas fresh and dried
1831
1447
19593
18447
Netherlands
1249
1111
12009
12264
Thailand
31
41
1292
1878
France
109
140
976
1836
Pakistan
56
56
1052
1251
Germany
318
50
3406
549
Belgium
13
27
111
309
Great Britain and North Ireland
7
9
97
89
Philippines
0
0
0
50
Egypt
1
5
7
43
Burkina Faso
1
1
36
38
Kenya
4
1
70
36
Brazil
0
2
0
26
Italy
0
2
0
23
 
08045000
Colombia
0
0
0
18
South Africa
0
0
16
15
India
0
0
15
8
Denmark
36
0
422
4
USA
0
0
5
3
United Arab Emirates
0
0
0
3
Uganda
0
0
0
2
Ghana
0
0
0
1
Hongkong
0
0
2
1
Cyprus
1
0
0
0
Eritrea
1
0
33
0
Norway
1
0
9
0
Switzerland
0
0
6
0
 
08051010       
Oranges (during 1jun-31 may)
6561
5978
18487
20462
Italy
1492
2221
6625
11464
Spain
4385
3128
9273
5918
Greece
388
444
1413
1710
Netherlands
226
184
925
1370
Denmark
49
0
162
0
France
2
0
11
0
Israel
19
0
79
0
 
08051030                   
Oranges-others during(1 jun-30 nov)
59732
60403
252098
308994
Spain
25216
25585
109119
125705
Netherlands
6937
8487
34036
52042
Greece
5020
9921
15671
44532
Israel
6948
7939
32538
40531
Italy
933
2628
4931
13442
Belgium
2635
1949
13078
12620
Germany
1441
1404
5675
8681
Brazil
1389
832
4257
2520
Morocco
6574
711
22050
3832
France
854
348
3512
2131
Cyprus
520
250
2036
1259
Denmark
503
189
1875
840
Turkey
156
79
604
368
South Africa
0
39
0
312
Norway
82
27
365
102
Poland
45
17
230
76
Argentina
392
0
1774
0
Great Britain and North Ireland
42
0
180
0
USA
45
0
165
0
 
08051050         
Oranges -others during (1 jun-30 nov)
1336
8512
7768
46394
Spian
363
3657
1635
20504
Netherlands
506
1720
3876
8887
Greece
0
1132
0
6567
Belgium
418
1099
2001
5227
France
13
532
133
3475
Morocco
20
246
60
1186
Germany
0
52
0
277
Denmark
0
44
0
168
Italy
13
25
54
83
 
08052010
Clementines and others
25479
26036
186690
209723
Spain
10259
13495
72525
106077
Morocco
7534
6301
55552
53625
Netherlands
4760
3595
37468
30798
Germany
862
709
6016
5278
Italy
557
892
3904
5248
Norway
393
414
3395
3486
France
413
263
2526
2413
Denmark
442
146
3552
1148
Belgium
94
118
806
789
Great Britain and North Ireland
0
66
0
594
Uruguay
0
21
0
143
Turkey
0
13
0
103
Poland
148
4
909
19
Greece
19
0
35
0
  
 08052030
Satsums and other
15964
9275
86220
68438
Spain
14290
7870
73461
55803
Netherlands
959
803
8506
8024
Germany
351
293
1757
2194
Belgium
0
49
0
653
Argentina
0
67
0
630
Italy
13
86
138
455
Uruguay
0
36
0
294
Denmark
272
53
1943
245
 France
77
18
408
140
  
 08052050
Mandarins and other
431
1171
2747
7784
Netherlands
326
752
2402
5325
France
0
227
0
1217
Italy
0
117
0
746
Cyprus
0
48
0
359
Spain
48
16
89
81
Turkey
40
12
155
57
Israel 17 0
17
0
101
0
  
 08052070
Tangerines
101
1687
709
11897
Spain
0
1584
0
11014
Netherlands
101
103
709
883
 
 08052090

Others citrus fruits

4054
5421
24832
41903
Israel
1618
3046
9171
22989
Cyprus
1006
1037
6183
8687
Netherlands
343
616
2673
4825
Italy
468
215
3254
1633
Belgium
271
206
1906
1661
Morocco
122
154
605
1077
Germany
0
124
0
899
Spain
16
22
79
123
Turkey
209
2
937
6
Denmark
1
0
25
0
 8053010
Lemons
11249
10775
68532
62314
Spain
6443
5949
35762
31477
Netherlands
4112
3236
28491
20558
Cyprus
266
534
1697
3022
Belgium
33
285
241
2811
Germany
47
171
329
1089
Denmark
127
203
856
994
poland
0
167
0
939
Italy
89
97
428
670
France
44
92
284
486
Turkey
48
35
234
202
Iran
6
3
61
41
 Greece
25
3
89
26
 Israel
9
0
45
0
 Great Britain and North Ireland
0
0
15
0
 
 08053090
Limes
560
669
8528
11115
Netherlands
469
547
7136
9097
Germany
43
33
695
553
Denmark
21
27
357
517
Great Britain and North Ireland
2
24
33
441
Belgium
3
18
54
252
Iran
21
13
236
160
France
0
2
0
44
Egypt
1
2
8
21
Norway
0
2
0
18
 Cyprus
0
1
0
14
Spain
1
0
8
0
 
 08054000
Grapefruit
5985
5340
30331
37306
Netherlands
1562
1625
8469
12677
Israel
1673
1569
8171
9674
USA
1325
1463
6521
9094
Belgium
863
395
4590
3437
Germany
333
127
1506
1165
France
54
28
302
400
Cyprus
63
67
255
348
Spain
6
14
26
220
Italy
0
18
0
138
Great Britain and North Ireland
0
22
0
85
Turkey
66
8
237
51
 Denmark
38
2
244
18
Iran
2
0
10
0
  
 08059000
Kumquats and other citrus fruits
114
163
2738
3291
Netherlands
93
134
2198
3063
Iran
2
19
21
106
Belgium
7
8
147
83
Spain
8
1
226
30
France
0
0
0
5
Germany
5
0
119
4
Italy
0
0
27
0
 
 08061010
Grapes, fresh and dried
21933
18511
230643
230214
Italy
10736
11139
86346
103122
Netherlands
4777
2084
65736
39442
Belgium
1765
1879
24339
37606
Germany
1653
1829
22476
31497
Denmark
802
590
5152
5895
Chile
353
184
3801
2773
Cyprus
326
105
4182
2024
USA
683
131
10788
1932
Spain
267
240
1928
1882
Great Britain and North Ireland
27
71
427
1422
France
64
45
914
809
Turkey
145
113
949
786
Finland
0
27
0
533
Brazil
0
14
0
171
Greece
47
19
243
162
Macedonia
38
39
212
157
Iran
0
0
1
2
Egypt
8
0
45
0
Ireland
49
0
379
0
Israel
141
0
1940
0
Mexico
17
0
369
0
Norway
19
0
271
0
South Africa
16
0
147
0
  
08071100
Melons
15773
14349
50208
63012
Spain
10672
10081
34723
46219
Netherlands
1499
1528
7548
8276
Greece
2181
1993
4472
5723
Hungary
217
211
571
639
Italy
718
167
1648
583
France
2
50
19
408
Denmark
100
59
330
312
Turkey
189
141
337
270
Germany
58
222
222
220
Belgium
6
25
27
170
Egypt
0
22
0
89
Iran
50
16
168
68
Estonia
24
18
38
35
Ireland
58
0
104
0
 
 08071900
Melons-other
16398
12130
87050
77947
Spain
11237
7289
48551
40465
Netherlands
3856
3762
29199
30303
Belgium
166
101
1461
1514
Greece
351
431
1109
1334
Germany
345
154
3168
1305
France
39
99
486
1173
Iran
57
94
476
614
Denmark
219
72
1534
445
Turkey
18
91
82
420
Italy
23
36
155
367
Morocco
0
1
2
7
Egypt
0
0
0
1
Cyprus
6
0
27
0
Israel
67
0
703
0
Pakistan
1
0
2
0
Poland
12
0
91
0
  
08072000
Papayas
283
213
7022
5833
Netherlands
236
137
5509
3466
Germany
27
56
702
1458
Thailand
18
18
728
848
France 0 1 0
0
1
0
38
Belgium
1
1
12
17
Ghana
0
0
0
3
United Arab Emirates
0
0
0
2
Denmark
2
0
70
0
  
08081010
Apples forthe industry
194
150
957
1096
Netherlands
22
106
127
788
Italy
171
27
830
182
France
0
18
0
126
 
 08081020
Apples (Golden Delicious)
29021
23465
119672
129718
France
12293
14609
50139
76113
Italy
12030
4593
46166
25689
Netherlands
983
1045
5440
6766
Belgium
355
660
2583
5165
Germany
2007
680
8035
4490
Spain
37
630
133
4429
Denmark
597
574
2024
2546
Austria
0
367
0
2176
Argentina
435
207
3092
1566
Chile
229
57
1659
452
South Africa
0
24
0
203
Yugoslavia
0
7
0
25
Switzerland
0
1
0
6
USA
56
0
402
0
 08081050

Apples (Granny Smith)

9068
9774
51700
58730
France
2447
3040
12115
17544
Italy
2598
2409
12204
12044
Argentina
1034
1147
7260
8345
Netherlands
1005
1061
6589
6827
Germany
407
794
2282
4721
Spain
109
540
792
3353
Chile
731
391
5388
2987
Belgium
258
173
1968
1311
Uruguay
173
139
1094
1070
South Africa
0
36
0
293
Switzerland
0
21
0
125
Norway
9
17
65
73
Denmark
72
7
364
32
Poland
0
1
0
5
Australia
73
0
512
0
 New Zealand
78
0
542
0
USA
75
0
523
0
  
 08081090
Apples-other
48878
45960
280322
292719
France
13980
14202
65107
89445
Netherlands
13085
10383
66583
66583
Germany
4144
5424
25698
27931
Italy
4301
3511
20917
22687
Argentina
2169
2807
15589
21667
Belgium
3390
2027
23454
16490
Chile
1569
1797
11550
13029
Spain
281
1602
1415
8490
Denmark
624
1113
3030
6108
Austria
419
1064
2090
5851
USA
699
555
4145
3784
Uruguay
938
373
5818
2986
Brazil
1214
298
7288
2236
Norway
2
246
17
1760
Greece
0
326
0
1687
South Africa
0
112
0
900
New Zealand
1797
65
13580
826
Macedonia
0
20
0
139
Poland
0
20
1
61
Yugoslavia
82
12
529
44
Switzerland
0
2
0
15
Australia
4
0
26
0
Iran
0
0
2
0
 
 08082010
Pears (during 1Aug-31 Dec)
129
107
840
750
Denmark
0
41
0
299
Italy
29
28
191
244
Netherlands
97
38
631
207
Spain
3
0
17
0
 
 08082050
Pears (during 1 Jun-30 April)
27750
28109
161072
189274
Netherlands
9559
8256
54725
53263
USA
2925
3817
21115
29386
Italy
2783
3650
17519
28966
Belgium
2979
3537
14402
20485
Argentina
3185
2450
19537
16403
France
2664
2267
12170
12770
Spain
730
1736
4227
10877
Chile
1459
1288
9010
9547
Germany
822
685
5018
4925
Great Britain and North Ireland
195
148
1347
794
China
29
128
150
748
Denmark
374
61
1640
453
South Africa
0
60
0
425
Turkey
36
26
168
233
Luxembourg
9
0
44
0
 
 08091000
Apricots
535
373
5640
4998
Netherlands
235
174
2398
2346
Italy
159
101
1568
1177
France
85
27
1128
487
Spain
29
31
195
470
Germany
12
15
183
190
Turkey
3
13
22
176
Belgium
4
4
77
74
Denmark
0
6
0
59
Hungary
0
2
0
20
Greece
7
0
62
0
 08092005
Cherries
68
71
722
2438
Netherlands
1
16
23
747
France
42
14
253
530
Belgium
0
17
0
476
Germany
13
14
219
364
Spain
0
5
0
166
USA
0
4
0
150
Hungary
5
1
70
2
Poland
0
1
6
2
Iran
0
0
3
0
Italy
6
0
143
0
Romania
1
0
6
0
 08092095
Cherries -other
1059
929
26847
24392
USA
256
276
5902
7184
Netherlands
160
155
3685
4371
Turkey
34
141
727
3670
Italy
247
90
5360
2943
Germany
80
59
2195
1819
Norway
105
31
4371
1561
France
76
36
2068
1245
Belgium
1
89
17
601
Canada
0
16
0
368
Czech Republic
0
16
0
182
Iran
7
6
122
117
Poland
7
7
86
104
Denmark
18
2
495
97
Syria
0
3
0
66
Spain
5
1
201
52
United Arab Emirates
0
0
0
6
Hungary
0
1
0
5
Greece
8
0
148
0
Romania
28
0
320
0
Great Britain and North Ireland
28
0
1151
0
 
08093010

Peaches, Nectarines

13439
13539
110231
102731
Italy
11070
11241
83806
78290
Spain
477
783
7349
10979
Netherlands
583
637
7515
6629
Denmark
794
566
6095
4186
Greece
289
193
2925
1403
Germany
148
69
1481
535
France
44
32
523
399
Belgium
31
15
488
291
Ireland
0
2
0
10
Turkey
0
1
0
10
Chile
5
0
49
0
 
08093090
Peaches, Nectarines -other
4682
5329
37028
37506
Italy
3870
4327
29790
27752
Spain
95
523
1324
5822
Denmark
124
176
854
1278
Greece
262
121
1895
980
Netherlands
258
102
2359
839
Turkey
41
33
328
286
Germany
16
24
161
241
France
11
20
244
231
Belgium
5
4
73
73
Syria
0
0
0
3
 
08094005
Plums
3351
2880
29658
28597
Netherlands
996
854
9714
9631
Italy
1103
691
8037
5633
Spain
523
340
4227
3607
Germany
116
170
1387
2436
France
109
198
1157
1917
Belgium
114
106
1483
1642
Denmark
35
183
293
1446
Hungary
191
218
1153
1423
Turkey
14
46
155
372
Norway
0
9
0
126
Chile
18
39
225
202
Israel
81
18
1218
114
Poland
1
2
11
17
Jordan
4
2
36
16
Iran
8
1
119
13
United Arab Emirates
0
0
0
3
Ireland
1
0
5
0
USA
35
0
436
0
 
08094090
Sloes
0
2
2
48
Netherlands
0
1
0
25
Belgium
0
1
2
21
France
0
0
0
2
 
08101000
Strawberries
4486
4914
98989
118835
Belgium
2135
2135
39591
58662
Italy
997
938
18720
19346
Netherlands
794
706
16279
16952
Norway
448
303
12120
8833
Germany
159
357
2424
7178
France
0
73
3
1751
Denmark
93
77
1971
1665
Spain
441
84
6669
1503
Austria
0
70
0
1416
Poland
223
115
1084
722
Finland
0
8
0
430
Greece
0
43
0
183
Great Britain and North Ireland
0
4
0
118
USA
0
1
0
41
Tunisia
0
0
49
21
Morocco
0
1
1
11
Egypt
0
0
0
1
 
08102010
Rasberries
169
95
5836
5603
Netherlands
45
39
3731
4463
Poland
108
47
1242
525
Germany
13
8
538
437
Denmark
2
2
185
142
France 0 0 4
0
0
4
17
Spain
0
0
0
11
Belgium
1
0
117
9
Chile
0
0
3
0
Iran
0
0
1
0
 
08102090
Blackberries, Mulberries and Loganberries
23
13
992
1153
Netherlands
18
12
926
1119
Belgium
0
0
14
17
Denmark
0
0
28
15
France
0
0
0
1
Poland
0
0
0
1
Germany
5
0
21
0
 
08103010
Black, White or Red Currants or Gooseberries
1
1
65
19
Netherlands
1
0
55
14
Estonia
0
1
0
2
France
0
0
0
1
Poland
0
0
0
1
Belgium
0
0
9
0
Iran
0
0
1
0
 
08103090
Other
2
1
103
107
Netherlands
2
1
100
105
Poland
0
0
0
2
Belgium
0
0
1
0
 
08104010
Cowberries, Foxberries, Craberries Bilberries (Blueberries)
2260
1853
12323
12323
Russia
1514
1495
6852
8782
Finland
745
329
5620
3235
Norway
0
22
0
171
Netherlands
0
1
30
76
Estonia
0
6
0
57
Poland
0
0
0
2
 
08104030
Cowberries, Foxberries, Craberries Bilberries (Blueberries)- Vaccinium myrtillus
1402
1445
19837
15715
Russia
1383
1402
18318
13329
Netherlands
16
18
1327
1838
Germany
1
4
109
289
Belarus
0
17
0
158
Belgium
1
1
26
60
Estonia
0
4
0
34
Denmark
0
0
24
7
 
08104050
Cowberries,Foxberries,Craberries Bilberries (Blueberries)-Vaccinium macrocarpon
24
13
1121
728
Netherlands
11
10
842
684
Poland
2
1
40
29
Estonia
7
2
64
13
Belgium
3
0
41
1
Denmark
0
0
10
0
Russia
1
0
11
0
Germany
1
0
112
0
 
08104090
Cowberries, Foxberries, Craberries Bilberries (Blueberries) -other
19
12
477
671
Netherlands
2
5
210
567
Finland
16
7
257
76
Belgium
0
0
3
29
Chile
0
0
7
0
 
08105000
Kiwi Fruit
8807
8624
76725
87087
Italy
5505
5844
33821
43818
Belgium
2512
1987
35247
32315
Netherlands
388
486
4579
6862
Greece
13
19
94
1609
Denmark
138
217
722
1453
Germany
12
67
91
911
France
8
5
108
118
Chile
229
0
2046
0
Ireland
2
0
16
0
 
08109030
Tamarlndes, Cashew Apples, Lychees, Jackfruit and Sapodillo Plums
28
72
1123
2226
Netherlands
24
39
961
1558
Thailand
1
6
30
265
Spain
0
12
0
125
Belgium
0
11
4
151
France
0
3
3
67
Germany
3
1
127
39
Denmark
0
0
0
21
 
08109040
Passion Fruit, Carambola, Pitahaya
276
447
9339
12261
Netherlands
239
229
7913
8896
Spain
0
159
0
1489
Denmark
12
36
366
1049
Germany
25
6
1035
290
France
0
4
0
189
Italy
0
8
0
185
08109085
Other Fruit
2319
36916
36916
36562
Netherlands
1114
995
21997
19410
Israel
357
502
4670
8584
Russia
36
86
1005
3143
Germany
31
18
1336
1075
Iran
127
126
666
914
Turkey
73
146
339
855
Spain
130
84
1195
798
Thailand
12
17
544
750
Egypt
2
62
17
369
Italy
34
26
170
197
Belgium
178
9
1810
133
Norway
5
2
74
118
Denmark
109
3
2021
104
Great Britain and North Ireland
1
1
46
56
Jordan
0
4
0
34
France
0
1
6
7
Macedonian
0
1
0
5
United Arab Emirates
0
0
0
1
Estonia
1
0
44
0
Greece
83
0
905
0
Latvia
20
0
43
0
Peru
0
0
4
0
Poland
4
0
6
0
Taiwan
0
0
3
0
Tunisia
2
0
15
0
TOP
Appendix 2
Exchange Rates 1990-2002
Average exchange rate of the Swedish currency SEK
  Averaae rate in SEK
1990 1992 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2002
1 US Dollar 5.91 5.81 7.71 7.13 6.70 7.64 7.95 8,27 9,17 10.34
1 Euro - - 9.14 8.65 8.53 8.62 8.93 8.81 8.45 9.17
Source: Sveriges Riksbank
TOP
Appendix 3

Useful Addresses

Food Industry Organisations
Association of Swedish Health Food Suppliers
PO Box 6356, S-l 02 35 Stockholm
Phone: +468545411 60
Fax: +46 8 545 401 70
E-mail: info@halsokostradet.se
Internet: www.halsokostradet.se
 
Swedish Association of Fruit and Vegetable Distributors
S-103 29 Stockholm
Phone: +46 8 762 77 00
Fax: +468 762 7647
E-mail: katarina.annerstedt-heino@sht.se
 
Fruit and Vegetables Promotion Council
S-103 29, Stockholm
Phone: +46 8 762 77 00
Fax: +46 8 762 76 76
E-mail: info@fruktogront.se
Internet: www.fruktogront.se
 
Swedish Food Federation
PO Box 16347, S-103 26 Stockholm
Phone: +46 8 762 65 00
Fax: +4687626512
E-mail: info@li.se
Internet: www.li.se
 
Grocery Manufacturers of Sweden (DLF)
PO Box 16316, S-103 26 Stockholm
Phone: +46 8 762 73 00
Fax: +46 8 762 73 10
E-mail: info@dlf.se
Internet: www.dlf.se
 
Other Organisations
Association of Swedish Chambers of Commerce and Industry
PO Box 16050,8-10321 Stockholm
Phone: +468555 10037
Fax: +46855531637
E-mail: shf@chamber.se
Internet: www.cci.se
 
The Swedish Association of Agents
PO Box 13077,8-10302 Stockholm
Phone: +46 8 411 00 22
Fax: +4684110023
E-mail: mail@agenturforetagen.se
Internet: www.agenturforetagen.se
 
Swedish Federation of Trade
S-103 29 Stockholm
Phone: +46 8 762 77 00
Fax: +46 8 762 77 77
E-mail: info@Svenskhandel.se
Internet: www.svenskhandel.se
 
National Authorities
National Board of Trade
Box 6803, S-113 86 Stockholm
Phone: +4686904800
Fax: +46 8 30 67 59
E-mail: registrator@kommers.se
Internet: www.kommers.se
 
National Food Administration
PO Box 622, S-751 26 Uppsala
Phone: +46 1817 5500
Fax: +46 1810 5848
E-mail: livsmedelsverket@Slv.se
Internet: www.slv.se
 
Statistics Sweden (SCB)
PO Box 24300, S-104 51 Stockholm
Phone: +46850694801
Fax: +46 8 506 948 99
E-mail: information@Scb.se
Internet: www.scb.se
 
Swedish Board of Agriculture
S-551 82 Jonkoping
Phone: +4636 15 5000
Fax: +46 36 19 05 46
E-mail: jordbruksverket@Sjv.se
Internet: www.sjv.se
 
Swedish Customs
PO Box 12854, S-112 98 Stockholm
Phone: +46 771 23 23 23 (information)
E.mail: malardalen.info@tullverket.se
Internet: www.tullverket.se
Customs tariffs: http://taric.tullverket.se
 
European Commission (Customs)
Internet: http://europa.eu.int/comm/
 
Eurostat (European Statistics)
Internet: http://europa.eu.int/eurostat.html
TOP